Yesterday            Tomorrow

July 26th, 1939 (WEDNESDAY)

UNITED KINGDOM: London: An IRA bomb blast kills one person and injures 18.

Destroyers HMS Napier, Nestor, Quantock laid down.

Destroyer ORP Piorun (ex-HMS Nerissa) laid down.

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26 July 1940

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July 26th, 1940 (FRIDAY)

UNITED KINGDOM: RAF Bomber Command: 4 Group (Whitley). Bombing - marshalling yards at Mannheim and Hamm.
102 Sqn. Nine aircraft. One returned early, three bombed, one FTR.

RAF Fighter Command: Weather, rain, Luftwaffe attack south-coast shipping. Channel convoys suspended in daylight hours. 4 Luftwaffe aircraft destroyed, 2 RAF aircraft lost.

Bombs fall for the first time on Brentwood, Essex.

No. 1 Squadron replaces 43 Sqn. at Tangmere. Plt. Off. Goodman in a Hurricane downs a Bf109 of III/JG 27.

238 Sqn. tangles with JG27 and off Portland Flt. Lt. S.C. Walch destroys a Bf109.

German night activity includes ten HE’s dropped at Fraserburgh in Aberdeenshire, and attacks on houses in Chigwell (Essex), Bristol, Dagenham and Canvey Island (Essex). Bombs intended for the ICI plant at Winnington, Cheshire instead fell among houses in Northwich but none exploded. Off Flatholme, Wales, a sand ship was blown up (possibly by mines) and eight crewmen were lost.

The Admiralty issues an order prohibiting the passage of Dover by ships during daylight hours.

Submarine HMS P-36 laid down.

NORTH SEA: As the damaged KM Gneisenau makes for Germany from Norway, submarine Swordfish carries out an attack and sinks escorting torpedo boat 'Luchs'.

JAPAN: Tokyo: Japan intends to take advantage of the war in Europe to expand its empire in Asia, according to a new military-inspired national plan to prepare Japan for war.  Their top priority is to block supplies reaching the Nationalist Chinese via Indochina. They will also take a more aggressive stance to secure their own raw materials from the Dutch East Indies.

Unveiled by Prince Konoye four day after becoming Prime Minister, Japan’s "new order", for Greater East Asia envisages Japan leading a strong union combining Japan, Manchukuo and China, the Chinese Nationalists defeated and the Japanese armed forces ready to go to war with Britain and the USA within 12 months if talks fail to stop arms reaching China through British and French territories.

U.S.A.: President Franklin D. Roosevelt invokes the Export Control Act which prohibits the exporting of aviation fuel and certain classes of iron and steel scrap with a license. This act stops the flow of these vital materials to Japan.

ATLANTIC OCEAN: At 1447, U-34 attacked Convoy OB-188 320 miles west of Bloody Foreland for the first time and sank two ships, the Accra and Vinemoor. The Accra sank after one hour and 15 minutes. 12 crewmembers and 12 passengers were lost. The master, 153 crewmembers and 311 passengers were rescued: 215 survivors were picked up by the British SS Hollinside, 126 survivors by the Norwegian merchantman Loke, 27 crewmembers and 52 passengers by sloop HMS Enchantress and 45 survivors by corvette HMS Clarkia. The warships landed the survivors at Liverpool.

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Yesterday        Tomorrow


26 July 1941

Yesterday      Tomorrow

July 26th, 1941 (SATURDAY)

UNITED KINGDOM: London: People are flocking to 'Target for Tonight', a new, authentic kind of war film made by Harry Watt and the film-makers of the Crown Film Unit (formed from the pre-war GPO film unit). The film is an understated, unemotional account of an RAF bombing mission over Germany by a Wellington bomber code-named "F for Freddie".

The "actors" are real aircrew from Mildenhall airfield, in Suffolk, performing their real-life roles. After bombing the target in heavy flak, the plane is hit and has to limp home in dense fog. It is piloted by Squadron-Leader Pickard.

British notice of denunciation of commercial agreements with Japan and freezing of Japanese assets.

Minesweeper HMS Deloraine launched.

Corvette HMS Rockrose launched.

FRANCE: The British ships HMS Cattistock, HMS Mendip and HMS Quorn bombard Dieppe.


U-116, U-134 commissioned.

U-251, U-437 launched.

FINLAND: The Battle for Bengtskär. One of the epic small unit actions of WWII (Cris Wetton)

POLAND: Vilna: This morning the Germans arrested members of the ghetto's Judenrat [Jewish council]. They demanded five million roubles for their release, of which two million must be found by tomorrow morning. Failure to pay will mean their execution.

As the news spreads through the ghetto, the Jewish community is trying desperately to raise the money to save their lives. Men are donating watches and women jewellery.

PORTUGAL: In Lisbon the transport USS West Point (AP-23, ex SS America), embarks American and Chinese diplomatic personnel and their families from consulates in Germany, German-occupied countries and Italy and sets sails for the New York. Also on board are 21 US ambulance drivers who had been passengers on the Egyptian ship SS ZAMZAM which had been sunk the German auxiliary cruiser ATLANTIS on 17 April.

MALTA: Italian E-boats' make an intrepid attempt to penetrate Grand Harbour and Marsamxett and destroy ships in harbour and submarine base at Manoel Island. Radar cover effective. Guns from St Elmo and Ricasoli in action. Coastal batteries and Hurricanes later engage. Force wiped out. Eighteen Italians taken prisoner.

MEDITERRANEAN SEA: Submarine HMS Cachalot rammed and sunk NW of Benghazi by Italian torpedo boat Generale Achille Papa.

CANADA: Fairmile depot ships HMCS Preserver and Provider ordered Marine Industries Ltd, Sorel, Province of Quebec.
Corvette HMCS Weyburn launched Port Arthur, Ontario.

U.S.A.: Roosevelt incorporates the armed forces of the Philippines into the US Army and sends General Douglas MacArthur"> MacArthur to take up the command of US forces in the Far East. MacArthur"> MacArthur says that he is confident that the Philippines can be defended if war should spread to the Far East.
US General MacArthur"> MacArthur recalled to duty as a Lieutenant General and is appointed Commander of USAFFE (US Army Forces in the Far East, a name MacArthur"> MacArthur detested -- he had wanted the new command known as the Far East Command). The Army of the Commonwealth of the Philippines is called into Federal service contemporaneously. 

MacArthur"> MacArthur continues as military advisor to the Philippine President. MacArthur"> MacArthur upon learning of the mobilization of the Philippine National Army but before learning of his own recall to active duty and of the creation of USAFFE, requests payment of the stipend of $50 per soldier serving in the Philippine National Army . This was provided for in his contract with the Commonwealth Government and had been approved by both Secretary of War Dern and President Roosevelt in 1936. 

The money was paid to MacArthur"> MacArthur on Corregidor during the siege. A few other US Army officers had similar arrangements with the Commonwealth but one of them, Dwight Eisenhower, declined to accept his payment. (Marc Small)

Washington: In an executive order issued last night Roosevelt brought all financial transactions involving Japanese interests under the control of the US government. In effect freezing Japanese assets worth at least GBP 33 million. This is in response to the Japanese occupation of northern French Indochina on 24 July.
He has also closed the Panama Canal to Japanese ships.

Today the British treasury and Dutch governments announced similar restrictions on all orders affecting Japanese holdings in Britain and the Dominions. By request of the Chinese government, the freeze is also applied to Chinese assets in order to thwart Japanese attempts to abuse its position as the occupier of key Chinese financial centres.

At a stroke, Japan has lost
88% of its oil imports and most of its supply of wheat, cotton, zinc, iron ore, bauxite and manganese. Its two biggest export markets, for GBP55 million worth if silk to the US and GBP40 million worth of cotton cloth to Britain, have disappeared.

Japan hit back by freezing US and British assets in Japan. These are believed to be small.


a) (MARSHALL to MacArthur):





Anti-Aircraft cruiser USS San Diego launched.

SOUTH AMERICA: Peru and Ecuador declare a truce in the border war.

ATLANTIC OCEAN: At 0328, U-141 attacked Convoy OS-1 and Schüler thought the he has scored one hit on each of three ships. The first vessel was seen being abandoned, the second exploded and the third, which had four masts, was seen to develop a heavy list. In fact, the Botwey was sunk and the damaged Atlantic City was abandoned, but later reboarded and salvaged.

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26 July 1942

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July 26th, 1942 (SUNDAY)

UNITED KINGDOM: USAAF 31st Fighter Group makes its first sorties using RAF Spitfires.

While flying with 412 Squadron RCAF, Lieutenant Colonel Albert P. Clark, the Group Executive Officer of USAAF 31 FG became a prisoner of war after being shot down during a sweep over France. He is the first combat casualty in the European theater for the U.S. fighter forces. (Bob Castle)

Sweets and chocolate are rationed from today. Adults and children get the same allowance - half a pound must last them for the next four-week period. The ministry of food will announce the ration for subsequent periods.

"Personal Points" must be cut out and given to shopkeepers for each purchase of sweets. Chocolate is rated at 16 points a pound. Penny bars or tubes of sweets will be counted at one point, twopenny bars at two points.

If children want more, it is up to parents or grandparents to give up some of their own rations to them, said Lord Woolton, the minister of food.

NORTH AFRICA: In Libya during the night of 25/26 July, US Army, Middle East Air Force (USAMEAF) B-17 Flying Fortresses and B-24 Liberators bomb the harbor at Tobruk.

In the evening Eighth Army attacks the German at Ruweisat. The infantry make some progress but the tanks get bogged down in mine fields and do not keep up. (Jay Stone)(139)

SOUTH-WEST PACIFIC: Admiral Fletcher hosts Admirals McCain Kincaid, Turner, Crutchley and General Vandegrift aboard the USS Saratoga anchored off Koro Island in the Fiji Islands. This will be the only pre-landing conference of the major commanders prior the Operation Watchtower, the invasion of the southern Solomon Islands. Admiral Ghormley is represented by Captain Callaghan, Chief of Staff.

After much discussion of logistics, Admiral Fletcher asks Turner how much time unloading will take. When Turner replies "About five days." Admiral Fletcher declares that he will withdraw the carriers after two days to avoid air counterattacks.

Captain Callaghan notes Fletcher's skittishness, but he does not invoke his authority as Chief of Staff for Admiral Ghormley.

During the next four days, the 1st Marine Division and attached units will rehearse their landing plans. The rehearsal is a disaster and Vandegrift and Turner are reminded that "a bad rehearsal foreshadows a good performance.

NEW CALEDONIA: The Americal Division is assigned to the US Army Forces in South Pacific Area. (Yves J. Bellanger)

NEW GUINEA: USAAF B-26 Marauders attack a destroyer off Gona but fail to score hits; Australian troops flown into Kokoda by USAAF C-47 Skytrains fail to halt the Japanese advance and Kokoda is evacuated.   

There is a brief contact between the Japanese South Seas Detachment operating along the Kokoda Track and a platoon of the Australian 39th Battalion, who fire at advance Japanese elements before withdrawing. (Michael Alexander)

CANADA: Minesweeper HMCS Digby commissioned.
CAPT Joy Bright Hancock appointed Director, Women's Naval Reserve.

U.S.A.: Judy Garland and Gene Kelly record the song "For Me and My Gal" for Decca Records. The song is featured in the movie of the same name.

Minesweeper USS Pioneer launched.

GULF OF MEXICO: SS Oaxaca sunk by U-171 at 28.23N, 96.08W.

CARIBBEAN SEA: SS Tamandare sunk by U-66 at 11.34N, 60.30W.

ATLANTIC OCEAN: At 0757, U-607 attacked Convoy ON-113 about 300 miles east of Cape Race and observed two hits on a freighter and heard one detonation further away. At 0811, U-704 attacked the same convoy and saw one detonation. It seems that both U-boats had hit Empire Rainbow. The master, 38 crewmembers and eight gunners were picked up by destroyer HMS Burnham and corvette HMCS Dauphin and landed at St John's.


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26 July 1943

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July 26th, 1943 (MONDAY)

UNITED KINGDOM: Both the VIII Air Support Command and the VIII Bomber Command in England fly missions:

- During VIII Air Support Command Mission Number 4: 18 B-26B Marauders attack Longuenesse Airfield at Saint-Omer, France; 15 hit the target at 1112 hours without loss.

- During VIII Bomber Command Mission Number 77, two targets in Germany and a convoy are hit; 24 B-17s are lost mostly to Luftwaffe fighters. In the first raid, 96 B-17s bomb rubber factories at Hannover losing 16 B-17s;

(1). 119 B-17 and 2 YB-40 Flying Fortresses are dispatched against rubber factories at Hannover; 96 hit the target at 1200-1243 hours and claim 40-9-28 Luftwaffe aircraft; 16 B-17s are lost.

(2) 49 of 61 B-17s dispatched against Hannover hit a convoy and other targets of opportunity losing 6 aircraft; they in turn claim 15-1-7 Luftwaffe aircraft.

(3) 54 of 121 B-17s dispatched against Hannover bomb the U-boat yards at Hamburg at 1159-1200 hours; they claim 5-0-1 Luftwaffe aircraft; losing 2 aircraft.

Frigates HMS Antigua, Bickerton, Bligh launched.

ASW trawler HMS Pollock commissioned.

GERMANY: Rastenburg: Hitler orders defensive preparations in Greece, which he assume will be the Allies' next landing site.
Essen: After a heavy raid on the Krupp armaments works last night, Dr. Gustav Krupp von Bohlen suffers a stroke when he sees the burning ruins.

U.S.S.R.: Orel: The Germans are pulling out of the great bastion at Orel. Having failed at great cost to cut off the Russian salient at Kursk, the Wehrmacht is having to withdraw from its own salient, 200 miles south of Moscow, in the face of a massive Soviet counter-offensive.

Hitler reluctantly gave permission for Field Marshal von Kluge to withdraw his armies from the salient two days ago after it became apparent that they were in danger of suffering another defeat  on the scale of Stalingrad. The Red Army has broken through the German's fortified lines east of Orel on a front 20 miles long and has defeated five German divisions.

Both sides are also weighing the lessons, as well as counting the cost, of the great tank battle at Kursk. Each deployed tank-busting aircraft fitted with large-calibre cannon. On the German side, the Stuka, fitted with two 37mm flak cannon, and the Henschel Hs-129 with its 30mm cannon performed with great effect. The Russians replied with Sturmovik Il-2s fitted with deadly 37mm cannon which on one occasion reduced 70 tanks of the 9th Panzer Division to burning wrecks within 20 minutes.

ITALY: Marshal Badoglio forms a new cabinet and declares martial law throughout Italy.

In Sicily during the night of 25/26 July, Northwest African Tactical Air Force medium bombers attack Milazzo, Adrano, and Paterno; throughout the day light bombers hit Regalbuto at intervals, and fighter-bombers harass shipping, rail, and road movements. Ninth Air Force B-25 Mitchells bomb Milazzo, Paterno, and Adrano while P-40s strafe and bomb Catania and shipping at Riposto harbor.

Northwest African Strategic Air Force B-26s bomb the Marina di Paola marshalling yard.

PACIFIC OCEAN: The last mission against Wake Island from Midway Island is flown. 8 Seventh Air Force B-24s bomb targets including oil storage area. 20+ fighters (including an aircraft identified as a possible Fw 190) intercept the formation. The B-24s claim 11 of the fighters shot down. 

SOUTH-WEST PACIFIC: Major USAAF_bong.html">Richard I. Bong (USAAF) flying a Lockheed P-38 Lightning shot down two Kawasaki Ki-61, Army Type 3 Fighter Hiens ("Tony") and two Nakajima Ki-43, Army Type 1 Fighter Hayabusas  ("Oscar")

SOLOMON ISLANDS: In the Solomon Islands, 24 USMC SBD Dauntlesses and 37 TBF Avengers attack Japanese AA gun positions in the Munda Field area of New Georgia Island. 

Later, 21 USMC F4U Corsairs strafe Kahili Airfield on Bougainville in support of 10 Thirteenth Air Force B-24s which drop fragmentation bombs on aircraft revetments. During the night, six B-17s also bomb the airfield.

B-25s, P-40s, and US Navy fighters over southern Kolombangara Island hit the east shore of Webster Cove and bivouac area and buildings on Simbo Island.

TERRITORY OF ALASKA: ALEUTIAN ISLANDS: 3 bombers and 5 fighters of the Eleventh Air Force fly 5 armoured reconnaissance missions to Kiska Island.

USAAF Eleventh Air Force operations: 32 B-24 Liberators, 38 P-40s, and 24 P-38 Lightnings fly 13 attack raids, bombing and scoring hits on numerous Kiska Island and Little Kiska Island targets, including North Head, Main Camp, the runway, Gertrude Cove, AA batteries, and on a suspected submarine in Kiska Island harbor. A submarine is sighted near Rat Island. AA fire claims 1 P-40 (pilot rescued), and damages 3 others. 1 B-25 and 15 P-38s fly 2 air cover missions to Kiska Island for the US Navy. Over 1O4 tons of bombs are dropped on Kiska Island this day, highest one-day bomb load so far dropped by the Eleventh Air Force. 
The Japanese Kiska rescue force refuels in the morning. In the evening, four ships are damaged by ramming in a thick fog.

U.S.A.: Nearly eighteen months after Hitler's declaration of war on the United States, six US citizens are indicted 'in absentia' by a federal grand jury in Washington D.C., on charges of wartime treason. These, all members of the RRG's (German Broadcast Corps.) North American Service, were Fred Kaltenbach, Edward Delaney, Constance Drexel, Douglas Chandler, Jane Anderson, and Robert Best. [HA-p.45] (247)(Russell Folsom)

 Destroyer escorts USS Koiner, Lloyd, Otter, Wiseman laid down.

Destroyer USS Meredith laid down.

Destroyer escort USS Amick commissioned.

CARIBBEAN SEA: U-359 (Type VIIC) is sunk in the Caribbean south of Santo Domingo, at position 18.06N, 75.00W, by depth charges from a PBM-3C Mariner (P-12) of Patrol Squadron VP-32 based at NAS Coco Solo, Canal Zone. All 47 crew of the U-boat perish.

ATLANTIC OCEAN: German submarine U-359 is sunk in the Caribbean south of Santo Domingo, in position 18.06N, 75.00W, by depth charges from a PBM-3C Mariner of Patrol Squadron Thirty Two (VP-32) based at NAS Coco Solo, Canal Zone. All 47 crewman of the U-boat perish.


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26 July 1944

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July 26th, 1944 (WEDNESDAY)

UNITED KINGDOM: The Eighth Air Force in England flies 2 missions:

- Mission 496: Of 93 P-47 Thunderbolts attack the St. Just marshalling yards and 40 attack the Givet fuel dump in France; 1 P-47 is lost.

- Mission 497: 7 B-17s drop leaflets in France during the night.

- 9 B-24s fly CARPETBAGGER missions.

ENGLISH CHANNEL:- U-214 (Type VIID) is sunk in the English Channel south-east of Eddystone, in position 49.58N, 03.30W by depth charges from the frigate HMS Cooke [K 471, ex USS Dempsey (DE-267)]. All 48 crewman of the U-boat perish.

NORTH SEA:- U-2323 (Type XXIII) sank at 1635 hours local west of Möltenort while on a training mission, in position 54.23N, 10.11E, after striking a mine. There are 2 dead and 12 survivors. The boat had been commissioned 8 days earlier.

Corvette HMCS Alberni shot down a German Junkers 88 that had attacked her at almost sea level. Alberni opened fire with her starboard Oerlikons and the after pom-pom as the plane tore toward her. The Junkers climbed and banked to clear Alberni and her port Oerlikons scored direct hits at close range. The aircraft burst into flames and exploded in the sea 100 yards off Alberni's port bow with no survivors.

US VII Corps take Marigny and St. Gilles in France. To the west the US VIII Corps crosses the Lessay-Periers road.
Weather forces the recall of several groups of Ninth Air Force B-26s and A-20 Havocs, assigned to support the US First Army, but about 160 aircraft manage to bomb a fuel dump at Senonches with good results; fighters escort the bombers, fly cover over the assault area, carry out close support for ground troops in the Saint-Lo area, and fly armed reconnaissance in the Poix, Amiens, Chartres, Laval, and Angers areas.

GERMANY: Lt.Alfred Schreiber of Ekdo262 shoots up a high altitude recon Mosquito intruder above Munich. Thought to be the first aerial combat jet kill in history, it has since been compromised by evidence that the badly shot up Mossie actually made it to a base in Northern Italy. (Russ Folsom)

Berlin: Himmler has launched a nationwide manhunt for anti-Hitler conspirators, and some 7,000 men and women are now in the Gestapo's torture chambers. The lucky ones are those who died on the night of 20 July. Beck tried unsuccessfully to shoot himself and was finished off by an army sergeant. Von Stauffenberg was taken into the courtyard of the War Ministry and shot. The Gestapo soon put a stop to that. Himmler wanted living plotters who could be tortured into betraying others. Some 5,000 of those now held face execution; the rest, mostly relatives of suspects, will be sent to concentration camps.

Rastenburg: Hitler orders the construction of an extra defensive line in Italy, at the foothills of the Alps.

U-3004 launched.

EASTERN FRONT: Units of the First Ukraine Front reach the Vistula west of Lublin. In the north Narva is captured by units of the Leningrad Front.
Fifteenth Air Force fighters on the second shuttle mission leave USSR Operations FRANTIC bases, strafe enemy aircraft in the Bucharest-Ploesti, Romania area, and return to bases in Italy. In Austria, 330+ B-17s and B-24s attack the Wiener Neudorf aircraft factory, the airfield at Markersdorf, Thalerhof, Zwolfaxing, and Bad Voslau, and targets of opportunity in the Vienna area. Also hit are Szombathely Airfield, Hungary and oil storage at Berat, Albania. Fighters fly escort and carry out patrols and sweeps in the Brod-Zagreb, Yugoslavia and Ploesti-Bucharest, Romania areas; bombers and fighters claim 70+ enemy aircraft shot down.

NEW GUINEA: Japanese resistance continues in the areas of Aitape, Biak and Numfoor.

PACIFIC: In the Caroline Islands, carrier-based aircraft of the USN's Task Groups 58.2 and 58.3 again bomb Japanese installations in the Palau Islands while aircraft from TG 58.1 attack and photograph Fais and Ngulu Islands and Sorol, Ulithi and Yap Atolls. Far East Air Force (FEAF) B-24s again hit supply areas, communication, and other targets on Woleai Atoll.

Japanese I-29 is sunk by the USS Sawfish (SS-276) north of the Philippines. (Mike Yared)(144 and 145)

Submarine USS Robalo mined and sunk off Palawan Island. Four survivors captured by Japanese Army but never seen again.

TERRITORY OF HAWAII: US President Roosevelt arrives in Pearl Harbor in the heavy cruiser USS Baltimore (CA-68) and meets with Admiral Nimitz and General MacArthur in Honolulu. They discuss plans by MacArthur to capture the Philippines vs plans by Nimitz to bypass the Philippines and strike Formosa.

U.S.A.: Minesweeper USS Dipper launched.

Destroyer escort USS Jaccard commissioned.

Coast Guard-manned Army vessel FS-260 was commissioned at New York with LT A. Smalley, USCGR, as first commanding officer. He was succeeded by LTJG L. F. Jones, USCGR, who in turn was succeeded by LTJG William L, Barlow, USCG on 14 October 1945. On 26 August 1944 she departed from the 3rd Naval District and on 5 September 1944, was reported towing the QS-16 to the Southwest Pacific where she operated during the war.

Coast Guard-manned Army vessel FS-345 was commissioned at Kewaunee WI with LTJG G. W. Oberst, USCGR, as commanding officer. She was assigned to and operated in the Southwest Pacific area and at Guam. Her first monthly diary was submitted for July and August 1945, the vessel, on 1 July 1945, being anchored in Manila Harbor where she had proceeded two weeks previously to effect an overhaul of her main engines and generators. She was still anchored there 31 August 1945

BERMUDA: HM S/M Unruffled arrives for ASW training.


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26 July 1945

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July 26th, 1945 (THURSDAY)

UNITED KINGDOM: The results of the General Election are announced. The Conservative  Party of Winston Churchill loses to the Labour Party. Clement Attlee becomes Prime Minister.

This is a sensational general election landslide victory. Tonight for the first time the party rules Britain with a secure parliamentary majority. It is a turning point in the nation's history. The results of the 5 July polling announced today were Labour 393 seats, Tories and allies 213, Liberals 12, other parties 22.

Voters had cheered Winston Churchill wherever he went during the campaign. But millions had also decided long ago to punish the Tories for pre-war economic misery. They voted instead for a party apparently more earnestly dedicated to social reform. The forces overwhelmingly backed Labour. 

Mr. Churchill resigned this evening and the king sent for the Labour leader, Clement Attlee, to form the new government. With the help of Ernest Bevin, the trade union juggernaut, Mr. Attlee had a few hours earlier survived a botched attempt by his deputy Herbert Morrison and others to depose him. In his hour of defeat, the war-time prime minister accepted the verdict with grace: "I thank the British people for many kindnesses shown towards their servants."

Boom defence vessel HMS Barbastel launched.

GERMANY: Allied leaders of Britain, China and the US issue the Potsdam ultimatum warning Japan that failing to surrender will lead to "prompt and utter destruction."

TINIAN: The cruiser USS INDIANAPOLIS delivers the consignment of U-235 needed to assemble the atomic bomb.

MALAYA: British ships end a three-day bombardment of ports, railways and airfields.

INDIAN OCEAN: Minesweeper HMS Vestal suffers severe damage after being struck by a JAAF Kamikaze aircraft and has to be sunk by destroyer Racehorse. There are 20 casualties. Vestal is the only RN warship to be sunk after being damaged by a Kamikaze aircraft. (Is this a specific or a general qualification? Were ANY RN ships sunk by Kamikazes or does this incident relate only to being scuttled after being damaged in such an attack?) (Alex Gordon)(108)

JAPAN: In the Kurile Islands, 7 Eleventh Air Force B-24s successfully hit the Kataoka Naval Base on Shimushu Island with incendiaries, leaving smoke columns 5,000 ft (1,524 m) high in their wake; there is no airborne opposition and AA fire is moderate and inaccurate. Another B-24 flies a radar-ferret mission over the northern Kurile Islands. The submarine USS Barb (SS-220) surfaces off Kunashiri Island and the crew uses her deck gun to destroy a lumbermill and the sampan building yard.


During the night of 26/27 July, 350 Twentieth Air Force B-29 Superfortresses fly 3 incendiary missions against secondary cities; 1 B-29 is lost:

- Mission 293: 127 B-29s attack the Matsuyama urban area destroying 1.22 sq mi (3.16 sq km), 73% of the total city area.

- Mission 294: 97 B-29s hit the Tokuyama urban area destroying 0.47 sq mi (1.22 sq km), 37% of the city area; 1 other hits an alternate target.

- Mission 295: 124 B-29s attack the Omuta urban area destroying 2.05 sq mi (5.31 sq km), 38% of the city area; 1 other hits an alternate target; 1 B-29 is lost.

509 BG conducts another Pumpkin mission.

Ops. Miss. Date Aircraft Cdr. Crew   Bombing Target Lat Long Result
27 9 26/07/45 44-27296 Price B-7 Secondary Visual Shimoda urban     Very Poor
27 9 26/07/45 44-27297 Albury C-15 Secondary Radar Toyama urban     Unobserved
27 9 26/07/45 44-27298 Taylor A-1 Opport. Radar RR Yards, Yaizu     Poor
27 8 26/07/45 44-27301 Eatherly C-11 Opport. Visual Tsugawa area     Poor
27 8 26/07/45 44-27302 Westover A-4 Opport. Visual Taira Industrial Area     Poor
27 9 26/07/45 44-27303 Devore A-3 Secondary Visual Osaka urban     Good
27 9 26/07/45 44-27304 Marquardt B-10 Secondary Radar Hamamatsu urban     Unobserved
27 8 26/07/45 44-27354 Classen A-5 Opport. Visual Copper Ref. Hitachi area     Good
27 8 26/07/45 44-86291 Ray C-14 Secondary Radar Kashiwazaki urban     Unobserved
27 9 26/07/45 44-86292 Lewis B-9 Secondary Radar Nagoya urban     Unobserved


(David Hebditch)

BORNEO: Thirteenth Air Force B-24s hit Tabanio, Trombol, Sengkawang, and Oelin Airfields in support of Australian ground troops.

CANADA: HMC ML 120 is paid off.

U.S.A.: Destroyer USS Joseph P Kennedy Jr launched.

Destroyers USS McCaffery and Newman K Perry commissioned.

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